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Four Books of Facts Published for 
the Benefit of Those Who De- 
sire Reliable Information 
as to Existing Condi- 
tions in this 

Copyright 1916 

by the 

Now Orleans, Louisiana, U. S. A. 



Dedicated to the men 
who have served in the 
upbuilding of a mod- 
ern civilization where 
chaos formerly ruled. 

Compiled by 



THESE four small volumes including "The 
Republic of Cuba," "Industrial Cuba," "Agri- 
cultural Cuba," and "Cuban Investments," form 
an attempt to put in findable shape many of those 
facts so often sought for, unsuccessfully, regarding 
one of the most interesting lands adjacent to the 
United States. 

Much time, research and considerable money 
have been expended in the compilation of facts 
herein contained and we would be derelict in duty 
failing to publicly recognize the many who have 
assisted, directly and by reference, in supplying 
the information presented. 

Mr. George Reno, Chief of Bureau of Informa- 
tion, Department of Agricu-lture, Commerce and 
Labor of Cuba; Mr. George Bradt, of The 
Havana Post; Mr. Edward F. O'Brien of the 
Times of Cuba and members of the Advertising 
Club of Cuba have materially assisted in this 

The works of Gral. Dr. Manuel F. Alfonso and 
T. Valero Martinez, and H. A. Himely, also the 
writings of Robert Wiles, Mulhall, and Willett 
& Gray have supplied much valuable information 
in the preparation of this work. 

If it but serves to increase the interest of those 
who heretofore have known little of the Cuban 
Republic we will feel that our efforts have been 
well expended. 

The Republic of Cuba 


YOUNGEST of the republics and occupying 
an area a little larger than that of Indiana, 
Pennsylvania or Ohio, and not as large as New 
York, Illinois or Wisconsin, Cuba has shown a 
greater ratio of development in its limited history 
than any other country on the globe. 

Its population is about the same as that of 
California, Indiana, Iowa, or Wisconsin. 

Laid down on the map of the United States 
Cuba would extend from New York City almost 
to Cincinnati and it varies in width from 22 to 
1 60 miles. 

The history of Cuba is replete with romance 
and interest. Since its discovery in 1492 it has 
been fought for by the nations of the world as 
the prize of the Caribbean. For more than 300 
years its industries were built up only to be 
periodically demolished by internal and external 

In 1895 tne fi na l rebellion against Spain broke 
out and after much devastation ended in the 
Spanish-American War which resulted in the 
establishment of the Cuban Republic. 

This period of strife was the worst in the entire 
history of Cuba. Property was burned and 
destroyed, cattle were killed and reprisals of every 
sort put into effect for the purpose of cutting 
off the opponent's livelihood. 

The naval battle at Santiago, on the 3rd of 
July, 1898, forever settled the question of Spanish 
dominion over Cuba. The conditions of peace 
presented by the United States were accepted by 
Spain on August I2th, and the Paris Protocol, 
prepared on October ist of the same year, was 
signed on December loth. 

The Republic of Cuba 

With the withdrawal of the Spanish troops 
those of the United States and of Cuba herself, 
were distributed to preserve order and quiet and 
to organize departments which guaranteed a good 
and safe government. 

In July 1900, the United States military gov- 
ernor of Cuba decreed an election of delegates to 
a constitutional convention to be held the follow- 
ing September and to arrange for an election by 
the people under the constitution so framed. 
The election was held on September 15, 1900, 
and in less than three months the constitution 
was completed on lines very similar to those of 
the Constitution of the United States. 

On December 3ist, 1901, an election of officers 
for the new republic was held with the result that 
Estrada Palma was chosen as the first President 
of the Cuban Republic. 

On the 24th of March following, the United 
States began the withdrawal of troops and thus 
began the real establishment of the Cuban 

The Palma administration continued from May 
20, 1902, until October 13, 1906. The policy of 
the Government did not satisfy the Liberal Party, 
and soon after the second election, an uprising 
occurred which resulted in the United States 
being solicited to intervene, which it did under 
the direction of President Roosevelt, who ap- 
pointed a Governor General of the Island. In 
this second intervention, however, the United 
States Government took only the position of 
preserving order. On the 29th of January, 1909, 
General Jose Miguel Gome/, took the chair as the 
Second President of Cuba the inauguration be- 
ing held on the birthday of Jose Marti, called the 
"Apostle of Cuban Liberty." 

The Republic of Cuba 

At the expiration of the term of General Jose 
Miguel Gomez, elections were again held, wherein 
the Liberal Party nominated Dr. Alfredo Zayas, 
and the Conservative Party, General Mario G. 
Menocal the latter being elected President on 
November i, 1912, his term of office continuing 
until May 20, 1917. 


Insofar as local conditions of Cuba permit, the 
system of government is modelled on that of the 
United States. There are a President and Vice- 
President, who serve terms of four years. The 
President appoints a cabinet of nine members, as 
follows: Secretary of State, Secretary of the 
Treasury, Secretary of the Executive Depart- 
ment, Secretary of Justice, Secretary of the 
Interior, Secretary of Public Works, Secretary of 
Public Instruction, Secretary of Agriculture, Com- 
merce and Labor, and Secretary of Sanitation. 

At the general election, preceding the expiration 
of the presidential term of office, each of the six 
provinces elects a number of presidential and vice- 
presidential electors, equal to the combined num- 
ber of senators and representatives to which each 
province is entitled, and a third as many alter- 
nates. This body proceeds to the election of the 
President and Vice-President. 

The Senate consists of 24 members, 4 from each 
of the provinces, elected for terms of eight years 
one-half of the number being elected every four 
years. . The Vice-President is the presiding 
officer, but to provide for contingencies, the 
Senate also elects one of its members to that office 
and he is considered to be the leader of the body, 
especially in the absence of the Vice-President. 

The Republic of Cuba 

The members of the Senate are elected by the 
members of the provincial councils and the 
Senatorial Electors named at the election next 
prior to the expiration of the Senatorial terms. 
These electors, in each province are 16 in number 
one half of whom must be elected from a list 
of the largest tax payers, and the other half being 
men of prominence and position. 

Thus the body is made up of twenty-four. 

The House of Representatives has a member- 
ship of 99; the basis being: i Representative for 
each 25,000 inhabitants. The members of the 
House are elected, by the direct vote of the 
people, for terms of 4 years one half of the body 
being elected each two years. 

Each of the six provinces has a Governor who 
resides in the capital of the province and is 
elected for a term ot four years. The Governors 
are assisted by a Council of eight members who 
serve terms of four years four being elected each 
two years. 

There are 103 municipal districts in the 


The following short histories are calculated to 
illustrate the high character ot those men in 
charge ot Cuban governmental affairs. Cuba has 
profit ted materially by the experience ot the 
I'nited States in the selection of men at the head 
of its government and a perusal ot the short 
historical or biographical sketches will demon- 
strate that only men of high executive ability have 
been chosen to pertorm the tasks and to solve the 
problems which are now making the Island Re- 
public a power in world diplomacy and commerce. 


11 The Republic of Cuba 



MARIO G. MENOCAL graduated from Cornell 
University as a Civil Engineer in the class of 
1888. Shortly afterwards he was called to assist his 
uncle Aniceto Menocal, the celebrated engineer 
who was then engaged in the survey of the 
Nicaragua Canal route between the Atlantic and 
Pacific. He continued in the practice of his 
profession until the beginning of the war of 
Independence in the Spring of 1895, when he at 
once joined the Insurgents, rising rapidly to the 
rank of Colonel. In the Spring of 1896 General 
Calixto Garcia, operating in Oriente and Cama- 
guey Provinces, made him his Chief of Staff. 

In the capture of Victoria de las Tunas, and 
of Guaimaro by General Calixto Garcia, Menocal 
so distinguished himself that he was promoted to 
a General of Brigade and sent with his command 
into the Western end of the Island, where the 
struggle for supremacy was day by day growing 
more serious. 

The close of the war found him in command of 
the Cuban forces of Havana Province, and when, 
after the withdrawal of Spain's army, the Ameri- 
cans took charge of the capital, Gen. Menocal 
was chosen to assist in the difficult task of bringing 
order out of chaos. With that end in view he 
visited Washington as one of the Cuban Delegates 
to the Intervention Conference. On his return 
Gen. Leonard A. Wood made him Chief of Police. 

The almost abandoned industrial interests of 
the Island at this time were clamoring for men 
of practical ability, hence it is not strange that 
a man of Gen. Menocal's technical skill, experi- 
ence and acquaintance with the world was offered 

The Republic of Cuba 12 

substantial inducement to ally himself with the 
sugar industry which for over half a century has 
been the chief source of Cuba's wealth. 

The Republic was apparently doing well under 
the guidance of "Don Tomas," as President 
Palma was called in Cuba; peace, order and 
prosperity seemed assured for a long time to 
come, so Gen. Menocal went to Puerto Padre 
in Oriente and there, as General Manager for 
the Cuban American Sugar Co., helped build 
"Chaparra," one of the greatest Centrals in the 
world. These were followed by "Tinguaro," 
"Nueva Luisa," "Constancia," "San Manuel," 
"Las Delicias," "Merceditas" and "Unidad." 
These include the greatest sugar estates and mills 
in existence, in whose direction President Menocal 
still retains a large interest, which is said to 
bring him an income of $100,000 a year. 

When the life, or permanency of the Republic, 
was threatened by the uprising of 1906, Gen. 
Menocal went at once to Havana and endeavored 
to bring about peace through mediation between 
the party in power and the Liberals in the field. 
Before anything was accomplished, however, 
Theodore Roosevelt sent his Secretary of War to 
Cuba who arranged matters according to his own 
ideas, and General Menocal returned to Chaparra. 

General Menocal was elected in the campaign of 
1912 and was inaugurated President of the Re- 
public of Cuba, on May 20, 1913. Owing to the 
number of Liberal members of the Congress hold- 
ing over, the President found himself on several 
occasions absolutely powerless to carry out many 
important measures which he believed essential 
to the Republic's best interests. The opposition 
seemed determined to block all plans of the ad- 
ministration by arbitrarily refusing to permit a 

The Republic of Cuba 

quorum in either branch of Congress. This first 
became manifest when the President asked for a 
loan of $15,000,000.00 with which to continue 
work suspended in the streets of Havana for lack 
of funds in the treasury. 

Days passed into weeks with Congress still 
refusing to meet. In this emergency, Menocal 
called Dr. Alfredo Zayas, ex-Vice-President of 
Cuba and leader of a large group of the Liberal 
party. After listening to the President's state- 
ment of the facts, and realizing the actual neces- 
sity for action, he sent word to his followers in 
Congress that a quorum must be formed, and the 
loan authorized at once, since the welfare of the 
country demanded it. Congress met, and in 
spite of the opposition, offered by what is known 
as the "Miguelista" branch of the Liberals, the 
bill was passed by a good majority. 

In the matter of national budget, also, the 
Conservative Administration was sorely perplexed 
and embarrassed by the attitude of Congress 
whose members simply ignored the urgent 
demand for action. Again Dr. Zayas rose to 
the occasion and compelled the opposition to 
act favorably which they immediately proceeded 
to do by passing the first budget bill that had 
been enacted in four years. 

The Liberal leader has been severely criticized 
by members of his own party and was accused of 
selling out to the Conservatives. In the estima- 
tion of thinking people, however, he is given 
credit for a sensible and truly patriotic attitude 
from which the country at large has benefitted 
and which undoubtedly places him in the category 
of statesmen who have both foresight and ability. 

In the selection of his Cabinet, all of which, 
with one exception, were men of his own choice, 

The Republic of Cuba 14 

President Menocal displayed excellent judgment. 
Taken as a whole, it would be difficult to find in 
Cuba men more earnest, energetic, capable and 
conscientious than those who, as Chiefs of the 
different Departments, co-operate with him in 
the direction of public affairs. 



of Cuba's most distinguished 
scholars and philosophers, who 
represents, perhaps better than 
any one else in the Island, 
those sound, sane and safe 
views of conservative govern- 
ment, was Gen. Menocal's running mate and was 
elected Vice-President of the Republic with him. 
To one who dislikes the turmoil, stress and 
frequent bitterness of political life, the position 
which he occupies has less annoyance than most 
offices within the gift of the people. Any country 
might well be proud of Dr. Varona, who, although 
not what we would call a fighter, has nevertheless 
the courage of his convictions and the moral 
stamina to not only preach good precepts, but 
to live up to them. 


The Republic of Cuba 


Secretary of the Executive Department 

S dean of the Executive Coun- 
cil stands out prominently 
"that Grand Old Man of 
Cuba," Dr. Rafael Montoro, 
for many years Cuba's Min- 
ister at the Court of St. 
James, where, in spite of our 
minor political position, in 
comparison with the great "world powers," he was 
invariably accorded that preferment which true 
worth and genuine culture alone can command. 
Dr. Montoro is today Secretary of the Execu- 
tive branch of the Cuban Government, and on 
his shoulders falls the weight of many of the young 
Republic's knotty problems. 


Secretary of State 

"HE President chose the dis- 
tinguished lawyer, Cosme de 
la Torriente, for his Secretary 
of State, but ill health within 
a few months compelled him 
to resign in favor of Dr. Pablo 
Desvernine, former Minister 
Plenipotentiary at Washington and probably the 
best known Cuban in the United States, not alone 
because he practiced law for seven years in 
New York City, but because his fundamental 
knowledge of all civilized codes has compelled 
recognition throughout the judicial world. Dr. 
Desvernine is a master of some five or six lan- 
guages, which fact is most serviceable to him 
in receiving representatives of foreign nations. 

The Republic of Cuba 



Secretary of the Treasury 

and statistician, was made 
Secretary of the Treasury, a 
position that he had filled with 
credit under the Government, 
of the First Intervention. 
Probably no one in Cuba is 
better versed than he in the 
intricacies of those financial and industrial prob- 
lems which unavoidably beset a young Republic. 


Secretary of the Interior on Government 

OL. AURELIO HEVIA had been a 
close personal friend of the 
President during the War of 
Independence, and,with Cosme 
de la Torriente, took upon 
his shoulders the management 
of his presidential campaign. 
Col. Hevia was not unknown 
in political life, having been Assistant Secretary 
of State under President Palma, but his forte 
seemed to be organization, and the management 
of men, either individually or in parties, hence 
it is that the Department of Government, which 
controls the administration of provinces and 
municipalities throughout the Island, seems to 
be, for him, a congenial berth. Difficulties to 
Hevia only relieve life of monotony. 


The Republic of Cuba 


Secretary of Justice 

did not come from strictly 
conservative ranks, but his 
never failing urbanity, his de- 
lightfully broad-minded de- 
mocracy, combined with rare 
judicial qualities, have made 
him a very popular Secretary of Justice. 


Secretarv of Public Works 

INCE Spain departed from 
the Island, fate has twice 
decreed that Col. Jose R. 
Villalon should be Secretary 
of Public Works. Gen. W 7 ood 
first found him, and remarked: 
"That man is a wonder of mar- 
velously directed and persistent energy; if there is 
another like him in Cuba, I have not met him." 
Villalon graduated from Lehigh University in 
the same class with Senator Root of New York. 
He loves his profession as an engineer and did 
not aspire to a Cabinet position. When the 
psychological moment arrived, his life-long friend, 
President Menocal, smiled at his refusal and 
said: "Find me another competent and fit for 
the position, and I may let you go." The other 
was not found, and so Villalon is the head of a 
Department that is doing things. If the money 
could be found, the country's public works would 
go ahead at aeroplane speed. 

The Republic^ Cuba 18 


Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor 

F all the Cabinet positions, 
however, that which carries 
with it the most detail, and 
the greatest responsibilities, is 
held by Gen. Emilio Nunez, 
Secretary of Agriculture, Com- 
merce and Labor. Gen. Nunez 
is a big man, mentally as well 
as physically, and when difficulties or complex- 
ities arise in any one of the score or more of 
branches into which his department is divided, 
he either solves them on the spot, or orders one 
of his bureau chiefs to whip them into shape so 
they can be properly handled. 

Not alone agriculture, with its many depend- 
encies, such as forestry, mines, etc., whence, 
owing to the nature of the Island, come most of 
Cuba's wealth, but commerce, labor, immigration, 
patents, trade marks, agricultural schools, experi- 
mental stations, local fairs and foreign expositions, 
come under the direction of Gen. Nunez. In the 
great mass of detail pertaining to this work, the 
services of Assistant Secretary, Dr. Lorenzo Arias, 
of Pinar del Rio, are invaluable. Nothing secures 
the stamp of his approval until he is convinced 
of its worth. 


The Republic of Cuba 


Secretary of Public Instruction 

as Secretary of Public In- 
struction, has an immense 
task in the development of 
Cuba's most crying need. 
This Department is divided 
into two sections; one has 
charge of preliminary educa- 
tion and has under its control all the elementary 
schools, while the other has control over the Nor- 
mal and High Schools, the University of Cuba, the 
School of Arts and Crafts, the School of Painting 
and Sculpture, the National Conservatory of 
Music and Declamation, the National and other 
Public Libraries and the National Astronomical 

Compared with the high illiteracy which 
maintained under Spanish rule, much has been 
accomplished along the lines of education and 
while much is to be desired there is every prospect 
of Cuba taking its place in the ranks of the well- 
educated nations of the world. 

The Republic of Cuba 20 

Secretary of Sanitation and Public Charities 

^ERHAPS the most important 
Portfolio of the entire Cabi- 
net is that of Sanitation and 
Public Charities, and also the 
one which has accomplished 
most since the Independence 
of the Republic. 

The Department had a 
unique reputation to live up to, having carried 
on the work begun under Gen. Wood (when 
Cuba was one of the unhealthiest pest-ridden 
countries of the globe), to the admiration of 
all, including its tutors, and it was therefore 
with complete confidence that President Menocal 
selected one of Cuba's foremost physicians and 
surgeons, Dr. Enrique Nunez, to uphold this 
reputation and continue the great work. 

That Secretary Enrique Nunez and his Depart- 
ment have not disappointed this expectation is 
proven first by the fact that Cuba is today the 
healthiest country in the world, with a death rate 
of only 12.70 per thousand (see statistics on page 
30), and also one of the cleanest; and secondly, 
by the very important practical results obtained 
by the active campaigns initiated by Dr. Nunez 
and his assistant, Dr. Lopez del Valle, against 
infantile mortality, the adulteration of milk and 
foodstuffs, the sale and use of heroic drugs, 
opium, morphine, cocaine, etc., and vice in 
general; the establishment of new hospitals and 
sanitariums for the poor, for children, for tuber- 
culosis patients and subjects; of summer colonies 
for poor children, clinics, creches, a special 
department of visiting nurses to the homes of 

21 The Republic of Cuba 

poor mothers and prospective mothers, etc.; all 
free to those who are unable to pay; the sanitary 
regulations for cafes, bakeries, coffee-houses, etc., 
and by many other accomplishments of primary 
importance to the public health. 

Dr. Nunez was born in Madruga in 1872, 
graduated as Doctor of Medicine and Surgery 
from the University of Havana (the oldest in 
the New World) in 1892, obtaining at the early 
age of twenty the highest awards in open com- 
petition, given at the University, viz.: that of 
Extraordinary Degree of Honour. 

At the outbreak of the War of Independence 
in 1895, Dr. Nunez at once gave up his large 
and lucrative practice and joined the Army of 
Liberation, of which he became the most brilliant 
surgeon, serving alike friend and foe, and was 
soon appointed Chief Surgeon of the Armies of 
Generals Calixto Garcia and Mario G. Menocal. 

After the War he became lecturing professor 
at the University of Havana and again took up 
his practice, without at any time having taken 
an active part in politics, until his entrance into 
President Menocal's Cabinet in 1913. 

The Republic of Cuba 22 


Dr. Carlos M. de Cespedes, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Manuel de la Vega, First Secretary of the Lega- 

Jose A. Acosta, Vice Consul. 


Hon. William E. Gonzales, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Gustave Scholle, First Secretary of Legation. 
Glenn Stewart, Second Secretary of Legation. 
Major Edmund Wittenmyer, Military Attache. 


Ernesto H. Lienau Aguadilla, P. R. 

Fernando Aleman Vallee Arecibo, P. R. 

C. H. Whitington Atlanta, Ga. 

Eduardo L. Desvernine Baltimore, Md. 

Rafael Cervino Boston, Mass. 

Rosendo Torras Brunswick, Ga. 

Francisco Pena y Hernandez Cincinnati, Ohio 

George Bancroft Murray Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Calixto Garcia Becerra Chicago, 111. 

C. W. Harrah Detroit, Mich. 

J. N. O. Partridge Fernandina, Fla. 

Ernesto Casaus y Almoina Galveston, Tex. 

Jos. W. Corry Gulfport, Miss. 

Crescencio Sacerio y Arencibia Jacksonville, Fla. 

Henry Clay McDougal Kansas City, Mo. 

Antonio Diaz Carrasco Key West, Fla. 

Richard P. Cane Louisville, Ky. 

James Pennie Los Angeles, Cal. 

Ramon L. Bonachea y Sarduy Mobile, Ala. 

Gustavo Marin Herrera Mayaguez, P. R. 

Leopoldo Dolz, Consul-General New York, X. Y. 

Felipe Taboada, Consul New York, N. Y. 

The Republic of Cuba. 

Romarico Seva, Vice-Consul New York, N. Y. 

Jose R. Cabrera New Orleans, La. 

Tomas Estrada Palma Newport News, Va. 

Caspar de la Vega Norfolk, Va. 

Manuel Leon Ross Pascagoula, Miss. 

Vincent J. Vidal Pensacola, Fla. 

J. J. Luis y Alcazar Philadelphia, Pa. 

Francisco Porto Ponce, P. R. 

Buenaventura E. Puyans San Francisco, Cal. 

Augusto Aguilera St. Louis, Mo. 

Jose Caminero San Juan, P. R. 

Arthur J. Howard Savannah, Ga. 

Rafael Martinez Ibor Tampa, Fla. 


George Bayliss, Consular Agent Antilla. 

Augusto Soler, Consular Agent Baracoa. 

P. B. Anderson, Consular Agent Caibarien. 

George A. Brenneis, Consular Agent Cardenas. 

Richard M. Bartleman, Consul Cienfuegos. 

Buenaventura Carbo, Vice and Dep. .Con. . .Cienfuegos. 

Clinton B. Goodrich, Consular Agent Guantanamo. 

James Linn Rodgers, Consul General Havana. 

Joseph A. Springer, Vice and Dep. Con. Gen. .Havana. 
Raoul F. Washington, Dep. Consul General. .Havana. 

Francis B. Bertot, Consular Agent Manzanillo. 

Alfred Heydrich, Consular Agent Matanzas. 

V. P. Sutherland, Consular Agent Nueva Gerona(I. of P.) 

Dean R. Wood, Consular Agent Nuevitas. 

John F. Jova, Consular Agent Sagua la Grande. 

P. Merril Griffith, Consul Santiago de Cuba. 

Harry C. Morgan, Vice and Dep. Con Santiago de Cuba. 

James H. Dod, Consular Agent Santa Clara. 

The Republic of Cuba 24 


The Army of Cuba consists of about 12,000 
men, of which about 11,400 are enlisted men and 
600 officers. 

The subdivisions are: General Staff, 6 Cavalry 
Regiments, one Infantry Regiment, one Artillery 
Regiment, Medical and Veterinary Department 
and Auditor's Department. 

In times of peace, six squadrons of 1 50 men each, 
of each of the six cavalry regiments are utilized 
for the preservation of public order and protec- 
tion of persons and properties outside of the 
townships, while the balance of the army is 
employed exclusively in military services. 

The Republic is divided into eight military 
districts, six of which are made up by the six 
provinces, with one regiment of cavalry each, 
one by the camp of Columbia, with the infantry 
regiment, and one by the military posts of 
la Cabana, la Fuerza, Batteries i, 2, 3, 4 and 5 
Velasco and Santa Clara, Habana, with the 
artillery regiment. The command of each mili- 
tary district corresponds to the command of the 
military unit there garrisoned. 

The army is well equipped and highly efficient. 
The regulations are practically those of the 
United States Army and for several years after 
the American occupation, American officer- 
instructors were used in its upbuilding and 
organization. This small but efficient force may 
co-ordinate with the army of the United States 
in case of necessity. The ordnance standard is 
the same as that of the United States Army and 
the uniforms are very similar to those employed 
in our regular army. The artillery is equipped 
with the famous Schneider-Creuzot, 75mm, 
French Army model rapid fire guns. 

The Republic of Cuba 


The City of Havana typifies the high efficiency 
of local policing. When one considers that a city 
of some 400,000 people has an average of some 
2,000 policemen, it must be evident that the work 
is effective. 

Quite a number of this force is employed 
in handling the traffic of Havana and in main- 
taining order in the crowded streets. This force 
is commanded by General Armando Sanchez 
Agramonte, Chief of the National Police, with 
a staff of Captains, Lieutenants, Sergeants, etc. 
The men of this organization were selected from 
those who displayed cool-headedness and bravery 
during the War of Independence. 


The Cuban Navy is not large, but ample to 
its needs. 

A total of twenty vessels with a tonnage of 
5,921 and a total crew, including the staff, 
amounting to 915. 

The principal object of this force is to patrol 
the coast in the interest of the Revenue Depart- 
ment and keep a watchful eye on the fishing and 
sponge fleets in certain restricted seasons. 

The revenue-cutter service was organized in 
May, 1902, under the direction of Capt. George 
Reno, present Chief of the Bureau of Information. 
On August 20, 1910, Senor Julio Morales Coello, 
Aide-de-camp to President Gomez, was appointed 
Chief of the National Marine, which position he 
still occupies. The armament of the larger ves- 
sels is modeled on that of the United States. 

The "Cuba," with a tonnage of 2,055, has 
served in many diplomatic naval missions. 

The Republic of Cuba 2G 


Many of our own States could well pattern 
after the efficient system employed for the care 
of indigents in Cuba. 

A system of instruction, sanitation, workman- 
ship, recreation and discipline has been built up 
in the prisons, which raises them to the level of 
the best establishments of the kind in the world. 

The Department of Prisons is under the direc- 
tion of Commissioner General Demetrio Castillo 
Duany, and the penitentiary, situated in the old 
Principe Castle, located on the crest of a hill 
overlooking the City of Havana is a model 
institution of its kind. 


The station for immigrants, located at "Tris- 
cornia," adjacent to the City of Havana, was 
built for the exclusive convenience of the many 
immigrants arriving at that port, and its main- 
tenance is provided for by the Government 
without profits, at the insignificant charge of 2oc 
per day from each immigrant. 

Very many good rules govern Cuban immigra- 
tion, among which may be mentioned, that no 
immigrant may land who comes as a contracted 
laborer. All immigrants are examined individu- 
ally by the inspector on board the incoming ship 
and admittance may be refused on the grounds 
of contagious diseases, beggary, lunacy, or lack 
of sufficient funds for proper maintenance, or 
mental capacity. 

During the five years, 1910-1915, there were 
358,189 passengers who passed the inspection of 
this department. 

27 The Republic of Cuba 


Cuba offers a great opportunity for the purchase 
of large bodies of lands at prices comparatively 
small with those in force in the United States. 
Good land may be obtained in small tracts at 
from $40.00 to $100.00 per acre, and there are 
many prosperous communities (made up almost 
entirely of Americans) who have sought the 
Island as their place of permanent residence. 

A great deal of care should be exercised in the 
examination of titles before purchasing lands on 
the Island, and the prospective purchaser would 
do well to have titles examined by a reliable 
local attorney. 

There is a local registrar of property in each 
of the districts and all liens against property 
must be recorded with this registrar before they 
become effective under the law. 

Land titles in Cuba are exceptionally good, 
and if proper care is taken in the acquiring of 
property no person need every worry about the 
title. A transfer costs more in Cuba than in 
the United States, but the additional cost is more 
than justified in the absolute security of title 
when transfer is properly made. 

The execution of a deed is a much more formal 
matter in Cuba than it is in the United States. 
The buyer and seller must appear before the 
notary and be well vouched for. Property is 
described by the boundaries with other proper- 
ties, and sometimes the bounds stated in meters, 
and the tracts are said to contain so many 
"caballerias" (33.16 acres each). The notary 
must see the money paid; and if he does not, 
and the vendor acknowledges its receipt, it will 
be so stipulated in the deed. Both contracting 

The Republic of Cuba 28 

parties sign the deed with necessary witnesses. 
The purchaser does not receive this deed, but a 
copy of it, which is furnished by the notary and 
another copy is sent to the National Treasury, 
as one per cent of the purchase price of all trans- 
fers of property in Cuba must be paid to the 
State. The fees for registration are moderate in 
every case. 


(The following facts are detailed at length in 
the various booklets accompanying. They are 
only given here for quick reference) : 

The Island is approximately 760 miles long. 

Cuba's sea coast is approximately 2,000 miles 
long, with more fine deep water harbors than any 
other country in the Western Hemisphere. 

Total Foreign Commerce (1915) over $409,000,000.00 

Exports for year ending in December, 1915 254,292,000.00 

Imports for fiscal year ending December, 1915 155,448,000.00 

Balance of trade in favor of Cuba 98,844,000.00 

Balance of trade per capita 39-54 

Fore gn exports of Cuba per capita 101 .72 

Fore gn imports of Cuba per capita 62 . 1 8 

Fore gn exports of United States per capita 22 .00 

Fore gn imports of United States per capita 17.00 

Fore gn debt of Cuba per capita 27 . 50 

Fore gn debt of Great Britain per capita 80.00 

Fore gn debt of France per capita 158.00 

Fore gn debt of the United States per capita 10.00 

(Although Cuba has a larger per capita debt 
than the United States, her per capita foreign 
commerce is 500 per cent higher than that of the 
United States.) 

Her tobacco yield is valued at $25,000,000.00 
in 1916. 

Although the groves are young, citrus fruits 
and vegetables produce $5,000,000.00 annually. 

29 The Republic of Cuba 

Pineapples, cacao, honey, asphalt, iron, hene- 
quen, mahogany, cedar, etc., yield $10,000,000.00. 

Its exports have increased in ten years 150 per 

Its imports have increased in ten years 82 per 

All but 19 per cent of Cuba's exports 
($254,292,000.00) go to the United States. 

67^ per cent of Cuba's imports 
($155,448,000.00) come from the United States. 

Since the beginning of the Republic (1902) 
Cuba's Foreign Commerce has increased 250 per 

Cuba has 1,246 miles of magnificent shaded 
auto roads or driveways. 

Range of temperature (mean) 12 degrees 

January average, 70.3. , July, 82.4 degrees. 
Extremes, 60 to 92. 

Average rainfall, 54 inches. Dry in winter; 
showers in summer. 

Population, 2,500,000. Yearly increase, about 

Excess of births over deaths, 40,000. 

Average yearly immigration, 37,000. 

70 per cent of population white, 30 per cent 

Permanent schools, 4,011. Teachers, 4,111. 

There are 2,360 miles of railroads in Cuba, 
with 200 miles of electric railways. 

22 steamers a week to the United States. 

Sugar cane on virgin land may be cut for 
thirty years without replanting. 

Tobacco is planted, grown and gathered in 
ninety days. 

In no part of the world are cattle, horses and 
stock ot all kinds raised with greater success. 

The Republic of Cuba 30 

Cuba is the healthiest country in the world, 
as the figures in the following table, giving the 
number of deaths per thousand, will show: 

Cuba 12. -jo 

Australia 13 . 10 

Uruguay 13.40 

United States 15.00 

England 1 7 . 70 

Germany 1 7 . 80 

France 20 . 60 

Spain 29 . 70 

Cuba has but 53 persons to the square mile, 
while the Bermuda Islands have 1,000; Belgium, 
600; Java, 595; Rhode Island, 500; Holland, 454; 
England, 425; Porto Rico, 330; Japan, 317; 
German Empire, 315; and Italy, 310. With all 
her natural richness this island can easily sustain 
more inhabitants per square mile than any of 
the above mentioned countries. 


The Republic of Cuba 


(Published for the benefit of those who may personally 
visit Cuba) 


Spanish is generally spoken throughout Cuba, 
although English and French are used to some 
extent. Visitors from the United States will find 
little difficulty since English is spoken in prac- 
tically all the hotels, cafes and shops. 





America, Gran 



Americas, Las 









Flor de Cuba 

Isla de Cuba 

Santiago de Cuba: 


Casa Granda 

Isla de Cuba 

Santa Clara: 


Jerezano, El 

Santa Clara 








Maison Royale 









Ohio House 



Palacio Colon 

Reina Victoria 




Palacio Vanderbilt 


Sagua La Grande: 


Perla de Cuba 




Paradero, El 




V. de las Tunas: 










L'nion, La. 


Isla de Cuba 

Pinar Del Rio: 


Ciego de A"ila: 





Isla de Cuba 


The Republic of Cuba 



Neuva Gerona, I. of P. 

Bibijagua, I. of P. 



Mountain Inn 



San Pedro, I. of P. 

New York 

Santa Fe, I. of P. 

San Pedro 



Los Indies, I. of P. 


Santa Fe 

Los Indies 


Santa Barbara, I. of P. 

La Siguanea, I. of P. 

Delicias de Copey 

Santa Barbara Inn 

Andora Inn 

Baggage will be attended to by the official 
interpreters from hotels. This will save the 
visitor much annoyance in conforming to cus- 
toms regulations. 


Colon Park. Amistad and Reina Streets. 

Central Park. Prado Avenue. 

San Juan de Dios Park. Aguiar and Empedrado Streets. 

Trillo Park. Hospital and San Rafael Streets. 

Juan Bruno Zayas Park. Fronting the Post Office. 

Cristo Park. Villegas and Teniente Rey Streets. 

Luz Caballero Park. Carcel Street. 

India Park. Prado and Dragones Streets. 

Almeda de Paula. San Pedro Streets. 

Prado Avenue Drive. On the Prado. 

Plaza de Monserrate Park. Obispo and Monserrate Streets. 

Carlos III Drive. Belascoain Avenue. 

Maceo Park. San Lazaro Avenue. 

Malecon. End of the Prado. 

Plaza de Armas Park. Obispo and O'Reilly Streets. 

Medina Park. At Vedado. 

Tulipan Park. At Cerro. 


Tuesdays from 5 to 7 p. m. at Malecon. 
Thursdays from 8 to 10 p. m. at Malecon. 
Fridays from 8 to 10 p. m. at Central Park. 
Sundays from 5 to 7 p. m. at Malecon. 
Sundays from 8 to 10.30 p. m. at Malecon. 
Sundays from 8 to 10 p. m. at Central Park. 

33 The Republic of Cuba 


Banco Espanol de la Isla de Cuba (head office and 9 branches). 

AguiarSi. Phone A-yiji. 

The National Bank of Cuba. Obispo y Cuba. Phone A-iii6. 
Royal Bank of Canada. Obrapia 33. Phone A-H4I. 
The National City Bank of New York (Antillas Branch). Cuba 76. 

Phone A-2563- 

Trust Co. of Cuba. Obispo 53. Phone 2822. 
H. Hupmann & Co. Amargura I. Phone A-ffiS. 
Gelats & Co. Aguiar 108. Phone A-4683. 
Alvarez Valdes & Co. Ricla j-A. Phone 3188. 
G. Lawton Childs Co. O'Reilly 4. Phone A-678. 


Cuba Railroad. 
United Railways of Havana. 
Havana Central Railways. 
Western Railways of Havana. 
All trains depart from the new 


Marianac Railway, trains for Country Club, 
Racetrack, Marianao and Beach, every 10 min- 
utes from Terminus, at corner of Galiano and 
Zanja Streets. 


Peninsular & Occidental, for Key West and Port Tampa. Bernaze 3. 

O'Reilly 4. Phone A-65y8, A-gigi. 
Ward Line, for New York, Nassau, Progreso and Vera Cruz. Prado 

1 1 8. Phone A-6i54- 
United Fruit Co. /'The Great White Fleet," for New York, Boston, 

New Orleans, Jamaica, Panama, Colombia and Costa 

Rica. Lonja del Comercio. Phone A-5228. 
Southern Pacific, "Morgan Line," for New Orleans. Obispo 49. 

Phone A-3032. 
Hamburg-American Line, for F'.urope, Vera Cruz and Progreso. 

San Ignacio 54. Phone .^-4878. 
Spanish Line, for P'.urope, Mexico and Vera Cruz. San Ignacio 72. 

Phone A-6,-88. 

The Republic of Cuba 34 

North German Lloyd, for Europe. San Ignacio 76. Phone A-2yoo. 
French Line for Europe, Progreso and Vera Cruz. Oficios 90. 

Phone A- 1 476. 
The Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., for New York, Antilla, Jamaica 

and Panama. Oficios 1 8. Phone A-6 540. 
Herrera Line, for North Coast of Cuba. San Pedro 6. Phone 



Cuban Steamship Line "Luis Odriozola" 
(South and East Bound) 

(Now all merged into Navigation Corporation of Cuba "Em- 
presa Naviera de Cuba"). 

Havana los Indies, Isle of Pines, Cienfuegos, Casilda, Tunas de 
Zaza, Jucaro, Santa Cruz del Sur, Guayabal, Manzanillo, Ensenada 
de Mora and Santiago de Cuba; also Porto Rico. 

Isle of Pines. Trains leave Central Station at 6.1 5 p. m. Monday, 
Wednesday and Friday for Batabano,in connection with the steamers 
for Isle of Pines. Prado 118. Phone A-4OJ4. 


Cuban Telegraph Service 

Operated by the Government 

Entire address counted as part of telegram. 

Limits of 3 provinces, 10 words for 2oc, and 2c each added word. 
Limits of 4 provinces, 10 words for joe and 4C each added word. 
Limits of 5 provinces, 10 words for 4OC and 4C each added word. 
Limits of 6 provinces, 10 words for 5oc and fc each added word. 

Telegrams for Newspapers (subjects of general 
interest) are ic per word to all parts of the Island. 
Minimum 20 words. 

Telegrams for the City of Havana and suburbs, 
loc each 10 words. 

Night telegrams, 50 words, 5oc. Nightly 
received between 8 to 10 p. m. 


The Republic of Cuba 


Per Word Per Word 

Alabama 15 Mississippi 15 

Arizona 20 Missouri, St. Louis 15 

Arkansas 20 The other stations 20 

California 20 Montana 20 

Colorado 20 Nebraska 20 

Connecticut 15 Nevada 20 

Delaware 15 New Hampshire 15 

District of Columbia 15 New Jersey 15 

Florida, Key West 10 New Mexico 20 

The other stations 15 New York 15 

Georgia 15 North Carolina 15 

Idaho 20 North Dakota 20 

Illinois 15 Ohio 15 

Indiana 15 Oklahoma 20 

Indian Territory 20 Oregon 20 

Iowa 20 Pennsylvania 15 

Kansas 20 Rhode Island 15 

Kentucky 15 South Carolina 15 

New Orleans and Baton South Dakota 20 

Rouge 15 Tennessee 15 

The other stations 20 Texas 20 

Maine 15 Utah 20 

Manitoba 20 Vermont 15 

Maryland 15 Virginia 15 

Massachusetts 15 Washington 20 

Michigan 15 West Virginia 15 

Minnesota, Minneapolis and Wisconsin 15 

St. Paul 15 Wyoming 20 

The other stations 20 


Fron one point to another in the city, not passing the Calzada 
de Belascoain first zone, from east to west, same passing 

the city from north to south, for one or two persons $0.20 

For three persons 25 

For four persons jo 

It first zone (Belascoain Ave.) is passed and not the second, 

.limited by Infanta St., one or two persons 20 

For three persons 30 

The Republic of Cuba 36 

Passing the second zone to the Quinta de los Molinos and 
bridge of the Agua Dulce on Principe Street, one or two 

persons 40 

Three persons 45 

Four persons 50 

For business purpose, per hour: 

For two persons 1.25 

For three persons 1.35 

For four persons i . 45 

For pleasure per hour, in any direction: 

For two persons 2.00 

For three persons 2.25 

For four persons 2 . 50 

To the Colon Cemetery and return i .60 

To Vedado from one to three persons 90 

To Carmelo from one to three persons i .00 

To Vedado or Carmelo and return from one to three persons i . 50 

To Cerro up to Palatino for two persons i .00 

Ten cents for each additional person. 

To Cerro up to Palatino and return for two persons i . 50 

Ten cents for each additional person. 

Jesus del Monte up to corner of Toyo for two persons 60 

Ten cents for each additional person. 

To Jesus del Monte and return for two persons i .00 

At any of the five points the automobile is obliged to wait 
ten minutes without any extra charge to its occupants. 


1 From one point to another in City, not passing the Calzada 

de Belascoain, first zone, from east to west, same passing 

the city from north to south, for one or two persons. . .$0.20 

2 For three persons 25 

3 For four persons 30 

4 If first zone (Belascoain Ave.) is passed and not the second, 

limited by Infanta St., one or two persons 25 

5 For three persons 30 

6 For four persons 35 

Carriages taken for going and return journeys 
in any of the six points mentioned above will 
wait 30 minutes at the end of the going journey. 
Coachmen cannot be compelled to go beyond the 
second zone after 9 p. m. 

The Republic of Cuba 

After 1 1 p. m. and until 6 a. m., all fares double. 

All journeys not specified in this tariff will be 
paid by previous arrangement. 

Tourists who wish to avoid all difficulties 
with cabmen should never engage a public car- 
riage for a long drive without previously, through 
a hotel interpreter, or clerk, having come to an 
agreement with the coachmen as to the route to 
be taken, the stops to be made, and the amount to 
be paid at the end of the trip. Coachmen are 
human, and there is no fixed tariff for special 
long drives. 

Also, the law sets the price of a carriage hired 
by the hour, for business purposes, at $1.25, for 
one or two persons, but the cabman is accustomed 
to receive $1.50, and his services are well worth it. 

When engaging a carriage for driving by the 
hour the tourist will do well to specify, through 
the hotel clerk, or interpreter, how long he wants 
the conveyance, and to see the time on starting, 
as the coachmen do not understand English, and 
by doing this will avoid all the difficulties with 


President's Palace, Visiting Red and Blue Rooms. 

Colon Cathedral at the Tomb of Columbus. 

Palace of State and Justice. 

United States Legation. 

Colon Cemetery, inaugurated 1868. 

Almendares Base Ball Park Former Bull Ring. 

Vedado (meaning forbidden), Havana's Fashionable Suburb. 

Cigar Factory. 

Central Park. 

Monserrate Street. 

Empedrado Street. 

San Juan de Dios Park. 

Plaza de Armas Army Park. 

The Republic of Cuba 38 

Templete Memorial Chapel to Columbus, 1828. 
La Fuerza Fortress, built 1538, oldest in New World. 
Senate Building. 
Merced Church, built 1782. 
Neptune Park. 
La Punta Park and Fortress. 
Carcel The City Jail. 

Malecon Havana's Fashionable Driveway. 
Beneficencia Orphan Asylum. 
Federal Prison Santa Clara Battery. 
Botanical Gardens of the University of Havana. 
Tacon Market built 1836 one of the largest in the world. 
Colon Park India Park Prado. 
Clerk's Club Produce Exchange Building. 
Centre Gallego's Club has 40,000 membership. 
San Francisco Convent Albear Statue, erected 1887. 
Vento Springs Havana's water supply. 
Mazorra Insane Asylum. 
Tobacco Fields. 
Orange Groves. 
El Cano an old town. 
Toledo Sugar Mill Marianoa. 
Castle of Madame Abreu. 
Carlos III Avenue. 
Palatino Park, Palatino Reservoir. 
Almendares River. 
Albear's Canal. 
Block Houses. 
La Lisa Bridge. 
Morro Castle, built in 1587. 
Cabanas Fortress, built in 1763. 
Atares Castle, built in 1763. 
Principe Fortress, built in 1774. 
Torreon de la Chorrera, built in 1646. 
Tower de San Lazaro, built in 1536. 
Student's Memorial, built in 1871. 
Charity Asylum, founded in 1794. 
Belen Observatory, founded in 1704. 
The Aldama Palace, built in 1860. 
Paseo de Tacon, built in 1835. 
Obispo and O'Reilly Streets, founded in 1763. 
Guanabacoa Town, founded in the i6th century. 
Terminal Station, with all R. R. lines, 1912 
Congress Building. 

The old San Francisco Convent and Church, in which the 
General Post Office is now installed. 

The Republic of Cuba 

Cock Pit Havana. 

Country Club. 

The Agricultural Station at Santiago de las Vegas. 

Marianao town 1 8,000. 

Arroyo Arenas. 

Quemados sub. of Marianao. 

I. a Playa Bathing Beach. 

Camp Columbia original camp of the United States Army, 

now permanent barracks of the Cuban Army. 
Monuments to American Soldiers who died during Spanish 


Race Course. 
Power House Havana Electric Railway. 

Morro Castle and Cabanas Fortress 

Visiting the cells and dungeons in which Cuban 
political prisoners were kept and afterward shot, 
at the memorial "Laurel Ditch" and the place 
where the commander Velazquez fell fighting 
against England in 1762. 

Seeing Havana and Its Suburbs, a Typical 
One Day Trip 

Visiting Obispo St., Columbus Cathedral, 
Senate, Presidential Palace, Memorial Chapel, 
La Fuerza, Merced Church, Tacon Market, 
Botanical Garden, General \\'eyler's Summer 
Palace, Colon Cemetery, Cigar Factory, Vedado, 
Havana's Aristocratic Suburb, Orphan Asylum, 
Malecon Drive, the Prado, and other places of 

Country Trip in Automobile, 40 Miles Round 

A delightful trip affording a fine view of Cuban 
landscape, with its abundance of sugar, tobacco, 
banana and pineapple plantations, orange and 
cocoanut groves, Marianao, Camp Columbia and 
Vento Springs. 

The Republic of Cuba 40 

To Providencia Sugar Mill and Plantation 
A delightful and popular excursion of 70 miles 
ride by modern electric railroad, through some of 
Cuba's most charming rural scenery; visitors are 
enabled to see in operation the very latest methods 
for extracting raw sugar from the cane. 

To Mantanzas 

Sixty miles eastward from Havana, through 
extensive sugar cane fields and many other beau- 
tiful scenes. 

A daily excursion organized by the United 
Railways of Havana, includes first class passage 
on train, round trip. Luncheon in Mantanzas, 
carriage drive to Hermitage of Monserrato, 
overlooking Yumuri Valley and a visit to the 
Bellamar Caves a fine specimen of cave which 
has caused the admiration of tourists from all 
parts of the world. 

In response to an inquiry of the United States 
Custom Officials of just what can be bought in 
Cuba up to the value of $100.00 and taken to 
the United States without paying duty, the 
Treasury Department of the United States has 

"Said exemption ($100.00) should be confined 
to such articles in the nature of personal and 
household effects, curios, souvenirs, wearing 
apparel, made up or unmade, table linen, china- 
ware, etc." 

This exemption includes the following things 
which are in such demand among all tourists 
visiting Cuba: 

41 The Republic of Cuba 

Hand-made laces, table linen and embroideries, 
bed linen, dresses, made and unmade, fans, 
antique furniture, bric-a-brac, chinaware, sou- 
venirs of all kinds and panama hats. 

Fifty cigars or 300 cigarettes, or 3 pounds of 
manufactured smoking tobacco may be taken 
into the United States by each passenger free 
of duty. Quantities in excess of this allowance 
will be required to pay duty. The above allow- 
ance is in addition to the $100.00 exemption. 


Every tourist is warned that although an 
aigrette or feather from any wild bird is brought 
from the United States, it cannot be taken back 
there. This prohibition does not include ostrich 
plumes nor those of any domestic fowl. 


Germany Virtudes 2 

Argentina Calle 15 No. 302 

Austria-Hungary Cuba 64 

Belgium San Lazaro 243 

Bolivia Jesus Maria 49 

Brazil Calle 13 

Chile Aguiar 1 1 6 

China Amistad 1 28 

Colombia Paseo 1 6 

Costa Rica San Miguel 1 20 

Denmark Habana and Obrapia 

El Salvador O'Reilly n 

Equador Calle 16 

Spain Prado 68 

United States of America Banco Nacional 505 

France Calle F y 1 5, Vedado 

Great Britain San Juan de Dios I 

Greece Banco National 

Guatemala Loaltad 1 1 6 

Haiti Calle 17 No. 347, Vedado 

Honduras San Ignncio 106 

Italy Cuba 48 

The Republic of Cuba 42 

Mexico Compostela 145 

Monaco Oficios 1 8 

Nicaragua San Ignacio 30 

Norway Lonja del Comercio 443 

Panama Calzada 90, Vedado 

Netherlands Amargura 6 

Paraguay Oficios 36 

Peru. . .' H. No. 138 

Portugal Virtudes 74 

Russia Banco Nacional 

Santo Domingo Calle 2 y 25, Vedado 

Sweden Amargura 6 

Uruguay Consulado 32 

Venezuela San Ignacio 76^2 


Population, 4,515 Inhabitants 

Nothing could be more beautiful than a moon- 
light sail across the Caribbean from Cuba, or a 
beautiful sunset on the way to Batabano from 
Havana, via the United Railways of Havana, or 
at Nueva Gerona with the quaintness of the spot 
and the balmy climate so invigorating. 

Almost surrounded by the green and inviting 
mountains of Sierra de las Casas, and the Sierra 
de Caballas lies Nueva Gerona, the Capital City 
of the Isle of Pines. 

These ranges of Las Casas and De Caballas 
have profitable marble quarries, which have been 
worked from earliest times. 

The automobile roads all over this tropical 
island are very good, and the sea (never far away) 
invites one to its shores. On the south coast 
beautiful concha shells are found in abundance. 
Fishing in portions ot the Island is a pleasant 
pastime to many visitors. At Nueva Gerona 
there is a first-class, up-to-date hotel, from the 
upper balcony of which the view of the sea, river 
and mountains is charming. 

The Republic of Cuba 

There are springs of mineral waters, chiefly 
magnesia, in the Island, much of which is bottled 
and enjoys fame and a large sale throughout 
Cuba. In fact, mineral water today constitutes 
one of the principal items of the exports of the 

Plying between Batabano and the Isle of Pines 
is the steamer Cristobal Colon which was espe- 
cially built for this service. One desiring to take 
this trip may leave Havana on the evening of 
Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; by train to 
Batabano leaving the new Central Station at 
6.10 p. m. and reaching Nueva Gerona early the 
next morning. 

Fare from Havana to the Isle of Pines is $6.00, 
exclusive of meals and berth on steamer, and 
$10.50 round trip. Ticket valid for 15 days. 


Population, 3,200 Inhabitants 
Another charming excursion may be made to 
the town of Madruga, which can be reached in 
a few hours' time from Havana. It is a typical 
Cuban Village, nestling among a pleasant group 
of hills, and has been famous for generations in 
Cuba for valuable sulphur and iron springs 
which abound there. There are bathing estab- 
lishments in this town so that the healing waters 
may be advantageously enjoyed by the visitors. 
The drinking water, also, known as "Copey," 
enjoys equal fame, and is highly recommended 
tor disorders of the digestive organs. There is 
no doubt that on account of its excellent location 
and its close proximity to Havana, Madruga is 
a town with a great future before it. Already, 
very desirable hotel accommodations may be had 
there the year round. 

The Republic of Cuba 


Population, 48,000 Inhabitants 
The city of Santa Clara is the second inland 
town of Cuba in point of size and importance. 
The air and soil here are remarkably dry, and the 
atmosphere the clearest of the Island, which may 
account for the exceptional beauty for which its 
women are famous. It has always been a city 
of much wealth, and the visitor will discover in 
it some features entirely unique. Very interest- 
ing side trips to Sagua, Caibarien, Remodios, 
Cienfuegos and other points on the Cuban 
Central Railway may be made from Santa Clara. 


Population, 75,000 Inhabitants 
Of all the many excursions from Havana the 
most popular and interesting is that to the 
beautiful city of Matanzas, sixty miles eastward 
from the Capital, and possessing all the quaint 
and foreign aspects that are so characteristic of 
Cuban cities and the same time is unusually 
rich in picturesque surroundings. 

The beautiful valley of the Yumuri, which 
elicited such unstinted praise from the great 
Humboldt; the wonderful and dense tropical 
vegetation on the upper reaches of the Canimar 
River and its tributary, the Moreto; the won- 
derful Caves of Bellamar, the subterranean 
wonderland, several miles in extent, lined with 
beautiful crystal formations of stalactites and 
stalagmites, in which electric lights strike a 
thousand sparks, and gleam in pools of profound 
depths. Its explored length is three miles; there 
are bridges and paths, and the place is well kept 
and shown. 

The Republic of Cuba 

Yumuri Valley and the Caves of Bellamar are 
the "Show places" of Matanzas. To see either 
alone is well worth the journey to Cuba, and both 
together form an attraction doubly strong. 

So charming a city is Matanzas that every 
tourist should, if possible, make a stay there of 
several days; they will find suitable accommoda- 
tion at the hotels given in the list on page 31. 

For those who may not be able to spend more 
than one day in Matanzas, the United Railways 
of Havana have arranged to run during the 
tourist season, commencing early in January, a 
daily personally-conducted excursion, leaving the 
new Central Station at 8.15 a. m., in charge of 
an Knglish-speaking guide and lecturer, and 
reaching Havana at 5.54 p. m. on the return trip. 

This excursion, which has become the most 
popular in Cuba, includes first-class railway fare 
to and from Matanzas, luncheon at Matanzas, 
coach rides to Monserrate overlooking the Yu- 
muri Valley, about the city, along the beautiful 
promenade skirting the bay, and to the Caves 
of Bellamar, and back to the station, together 
with admission to the caves, for the price of $8.00. 
Children under twelve, $4.00. Tickets are on 
sale at the Inglaterra Hotel, at the Central 
Station, and the City Ticket Office of the United 
Railways of Havana, Prado 118 (Central Park), 

Population, 12,000 Inhabitants 

Caibarien is also a most important port, and 
is the outlet tor several large sugar mills in its 
vicinity. Through it are also exported large 
quantities of tobacco from the important tobacco 
centers ot Camajuani, Remedios and Placetas, 

The Republic of Cuba 46 

all large, prosperous towns and offering something 
of interest each in its own way. The Cuban 
Central Railway have both broad and narrow 
gauge runs through some of the prettiest scenery 
imaginable and is a trip which should certainly 
not be missed. Sugar mills, cane fields and 
banana groves, can be seen at frequent intervals, 
and the view from the rear platform of the train 
when one has proceeded a little way on the 
journey, embracing as it does the wide blue ocean 
and Caribarien Bay, is one that will always be 


(Capital of Province of Same Name) 
Population, 53,000 Inhabitants 

Famed as Havana is, as the home of the most 
fragrant and delectable of all cigars, no less 
famous to the more initiated is "Vuelta Abajo," 
the name of the district in Western Pinar Del 
Rio Province where grows the best and most 
aromatic leaf, to which superior grade of tobacco 
this name is given. 

The Western Railways of Havana extend 
nearly the whole length of the Province of Pinar 
Del Rio, and offer exceptionally interesting excur- 
sions, notably among which are those to Rancho 
Boyeros and Santiago de las Vegas, where much 
American capital has been invested in the culti- 
vation of citrus fruits. Santiago de las Vegas 
is also interesting as the location of the National 
Agronomical Agricultural Experimental Station 
of Cuba. 

Pinar del Rio, the Capital of the Province, is 
an excellent place to make one's headquarters, 
from which to make delightful rides or automobile 
excursions through the great tobacco country 

47 The Republic of Cuba 

west, and north to the charming Vinales Valley. 
There are good hotels, and several days may be 
spent with comfort. Tourists may avail them- 
selves of the reduced round trip rates in force 
during the winter season. 


Population, 75,000 Inhabitants 

Cienfuegos was founded by Don Luis Clouet 
in 1519. The city is modern in character, with 
streets forty-five feet wide, and is one of the 
busiest and most enterprising towns in Cuba. 
Near it are several well-equipped sugar mills. 
Cienfuegos Bay, eleven miles long and from four 
to five in width, forms one of the finest natural 
harbors in the world, with room for a thousand 
ships. The city possesses a very fine Cathedral, 
and the Terry Theatre, close to the Plaza, 
decorated with laurel and royal palms makes one 
of the prettiest plazas of Cuba. 

Punta Gorda is a charming residential suburb 
and equally delightful are the colonies at Cayo 
Carenas. Jagua Castle, a picturesque fortifica- 
tion bequeathed to Cuba by the artist-builders 
of the time of Philip V of Spain, was constructed 
to protect the harbor from pirates which infested 
these waters in the olden days. To meet the 
requirements of the increasing traffic between 
Havana and Cienfuegos, the United Railways of 
Havana recently inaugurated a new direct service 
ot trains, for which entirely new equipment, 
including comfortable sleeping cars, were con- 
structed. These trains southbound, leave Havana 
at 10.30 p. m. daily and arrive in Cienfuegos 
at 7.17 a. m. next clay. And northbound, they 
leave Cienfuegos daily at 10 p. m. and arrive in 
Havana at 6.20 a. m. 

The Republic of Cuba 48 

A convenient service of day trains in both 
directions is maintained via Santa Domingo, at 
which point passengers change trains. The fares 
on the night direct train are $8.69 first class. 
Berth in sleeping car is $3.00. Section, $6.00 
and Drawing Room, $10.00. On the day train 
Santo Domingo Route, the fares are $9.15 first 
class. Tourist round trip ticket via direct night 
train, $12.00, valid 15 days (in tourist season 


Population, 45,000 Inhabitants 

Guantanamo is reached by changing trains at 
San Luis, a station about twenty miles north of 
Santiago. It is fast becoming a point of con- 
siderable attraction to tourists on account of the 
United States Naval Station located near there. 
Tourists bound for Guantanamo are recommended 
to proceed to Santiago, where there are modern 
hotels, and whence they can leave on the morning 
train for San Luis, where it connects for Guan- 
tanamo. First class fare from Havana, $25.58; 
round trip, $42.02 (in tourist season only). 


Population, 29,000 Inhabitants 

Sagua la Grande is on the river of the same 
name, which is one of the most important of the 
north coast, being navigable for twenty miles. 
It has always been a city of some wealth, and the 
visitor will discover in it some features entirely 

The Republic of Cuba 


Population, 68,000 Inhabitants 

Founded in 1515 by order of Don Diego 
Velazquez. The city lies on a plain about mid- 
way between coasts, 550 feet above sea level. 
Its climate in winter is especially ideal. 

The city of Camaguey looks its antiquity. It 
is full of quaint and picturesque nooks and 
corners. The projecting window grills, the heavy 
cornices and overhanging, fluted tile roofs, the 
tinajones (earthenware jars) for rain water, some- 
times of immense size, make a succession of 
attractive pictures. 

Camaguey Province is famous as a grazing 
country. The cattle industry is the principal 
source of wealth. There are also valuable timber 
lands; and honey and wax are exported. Among 
the attractions of Camaguey are its time-worn 
churches; the most interesting is La Merced, 
built in 1628, by missionaries of Our Lady of 
Mercy. Its high altar is of silver; it was 
fashioned from 40,000 Spanish dollars. 

The Cuba Railroad Company operates the 
Hotel "Camaguey." It occupies with its gardens 
nearly five acres. The great corridors are striking 
features, and the inner gardens (patios) bright with 
foliage plants and tropical flowers, are very beauti- 
ful. Almost all the bedrooms have private bath- 
rooms attached, and all are equipped with tele- 
phones, while the drainage, plumbing and 
sanitary arrangements throughout are perfect. 
Pure water is provided from an artesian well. 
The hotel is run on the American plan. 

Havana-Camaguey-Santiago train. 

Leaves Central Station (daily) at 10.00 p. in., 
arriving next day at Camaguey I2..>o p. m., and 
at Santiago, 9.45 p. m. 

The Republic of Cuba 50 

Havana-Camaguey day train leaves Central 
Station (daily) at 8.15 a. m., arriving Camaguey, 
10.30 p. m., same day. First class fare, $15.49. 
Round trip, $23.24 (in tourist season only). 


Population, 60,000 Inhabitants 

Founded by Velazquez in 1514. Santiago is 
the second most interesting city in Cuba, not 
only because of the natural beauty of its situation, 
but also on account of the charm of its history. 

It was from Santiago that Gryjalva set out 
upon the voyage in the course of which he dis- 
covered Yucatan, and from here sailed Cortez 
on the 1 8th day of November, 1 5 1 8, to accomplish 
the conquest of Mexico. And it was from 
Santiago that Cervera, 380 years later, went 
forth with his fleet to destruction on that fateful 
3rd of July, 1898, which marked the end of 
Spanish Domination in the New World. 

From Santiago a macadam road leads to the vil- 
lages of Cuavitas and San Vicente, thence it winds 
up the face of a mountain and crosses the Sierra 
Maestra range to Dos Caminos and San Luis. 
From the crown of the first mountain at an 
elevation of 1,526 feet a magnificent view of the 
city and bay of Santiago is obtained a matchless 
panorama, with the deep blue Caribbean Sea 
in the far back-ground. 

Santiago contains many historic points, such 
as the Morro Castle, built in 1664, the Peace 
Tree, the San Juan Hill; El Caney, the Cathedral, 
the Cemetery with the graves of the distinguished 
Cuban patriots, Estrada Palma, Cespedes, and 
Marti, and the tomb of the members of the 
Virginius expedition who were shot by the 

51 The Republic of Cuba 

Spaniards. Santiago Harbor is six miles in 
length and three wide, with the narrow entrance 
walled in by the surrounding mountains. 

Houses of ancient Spanish type abound, and 
there is far greater wealth of coloring of buildings 
than anywhere else. One looks down steep, 
fantastically colored streets and over red-tiled 
roofs to the bay. The traveler visiting Santiago 
has heretofore been inconvenienced by the lack 
of suitable hotels and of inadequate steamship 
communication between Santiago and Jamaica. 
The Cuba Railroad Company has made these 
inconveniences a thing of the past. A splendidly 
equipped hotel of five stories, has been built 
and is operated by the Railroad Company on the 
site occupied by the old "Casa Granda." The 
hotel is furnished with all modern conveniences, 
private baths, telephones^ ticket and baggage 
offices, etc. 

The Havana-Santiago trains carry sleeping cars 
and an observation coach, which enable the 
traveler to obtain comprehensive views of the 
country traversed. All sleeping cars are con- 
structed to equal the highest standard of those 
on American lines, and are equipped with electric 
light and fans and every modern convenience. 
The Havana-Santiago Express train leaves Cent- 
ral Station every night at 10.00 o'clock and 
arrives at Santiago the next day at 9.45 p. m. 
Fare, first class, $24.00. Round trip, $36.17 (in 
tourist season only). 

We will be pleased to supply further informa- 
tion regarding Cuban conditions. 



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